Primary education is the basic education a person can acquire. It forms the foundation for the development of every citizen and the nation as a whole. Although India has made progress in terms of increasing primary education enrolment,  regularity in attendance, increasing participation rate, retention and expanding literacy. At the same time the Primary Education sector faces certain challenges.

Problems of Primary Education in India


  • The financial resources available for expanding primary education are minimal. Also, allocated public resources are not utilised effectively and efficiently.
  • Most rural schools are single-teacher schools. Rural schools lack the adequate staff to impart quality education.
  • Lack of infrastructural facilities, indifferent attitude of the teachers and inadequate classroom facilities refrain parents from sending their children to school.
  • Parents who are not financially stable and cannot afford the education of their children often make their children drop out of school early.
  • There are no potential resources and teachers in rural schools to tap the latent talent of the students.
  • Absenteeism of teacher.
  • There is little or no transfer of technology, knowledge and ideas from the developed urban sector to the rural sector. The reason for this is lack of money and apathy in rural areas. Therefore, the rural schools are not able to take advantage of the emerging technology or new ideas.
  • Genders divide. Parents do not prefer to educate girls and do not encourage the participation of females in labour market.


  • There is more focus on exams and marks.
  • With more focus on exams and marks, it discourages questioning, learning, creativity and applicability.
  • There is lack of teachers. The demand for teachers is more than their supply. Teaching is now considered as the profession of the last resort attracting only those people for whom teaching is a hobby or do not have the potential to do something else.
  • Also, teacher training institutions have declined over the years. Not only the institutions have declined in number, the quality of education has also deteriorated.

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